4 Fl, 3 Ob, 4 Cl in Bb, 4 Bsn, 4 Hns (F), 3 Trs (C), 2 Ten Trom, 1 Bs Trom, Tuba, 3 perc ((small tri, cymbal, bell tree, guiro, ratchet, vibraslap, medium and large tamtam, small tomtom, tenor drum, 2 bass drums, glock, xylo, vibraphone, marimba) timp (doubles perc.3) (sep part for Timps - 4th perc), Hp, Strings
4344, 4331, Harp, Perc 3 (separate part for Timpani if cond wishes 4th perc), Strings
In writing a work for large orchestra, the main problem that presented itself was such: that for all the twentieth century techniques that deal with material (i.e. structure or pitch classes), for the most part we are stuck with the same timbres. Admittedly, composers such as Bela Bartok, Gyorgy Ligeti, and George Crumb have made much progress in the use of instruments and instrumentation. However, apart from some accepted new ways of employing instruments, a romantic size orchestra in the twentieth century still sounds, to my ears, like a romantic size orchestra.
I felt that trying to change this fact was a bit like trying to alter the universe, so instead of attempting to invent a “new” sound, I aimed to highlight the similarity of acoustic sounds between twentieth century and late romantic material (keep in mind this work was written in the last century!!)